Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Organic Molecules

Today we continued to expand our knowledge of organic molecules -- i.e. the substances that compose all of the parts of any living organism.

Below is a summary of each group of organic molecules.

CARBOHYDRATES

Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

Subunits: monosaccharides

Purpose: energy -- mainly short-term

Examples: glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycogen, cellulose, starches, lactose

Other tidbits:
-- aka sugars
-- most have the suffix (ending) -ose
-- if they aren't used, then they combine to form more complex sugars and eventually lipids

http://www.farahaznil.com/2009/12/the-importance-of-carbohydrates/
LIPIDS





Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, and a LITTLE bit of oxygen 

Subunits: fatty acids

Purpose: energy -- mainly long term, insulation, protection

Examples: fats, oils, waxes

Other tidbits:
-- hydrophobic - no they don't run in terror!!  It means they don't mix with water.
-- compose cell membranes as a phospholipid bilayer

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/39/85866971_d3ddafa734.jpg?v=0

PROTEINS

www.discoveryhealth.com

Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and sometimes Sulfur 

Subunits: amino acids held together by peptide bonds

Purpose: structure and support, messengers and other mobile functions

Examples: muscle tissue, insulin, hemoglobin, enzymes

Other tidbits:
THEY RUN THE SHOW!!

--Enzymes -- special group of proteins that help speed up chemical reactions.  They act like a key in that they are specific to the substrate that they work to break down or to combine.  Example: lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose.  It doesn't fit any other chemical structure except that of lactose.  Most enzymes end in -ase.
http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/metab/EScomplex.jpg
http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_124/Summaries/Enzymes.html
NUCLEIC ACIDS





Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus

Subunits: nucleotides (phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base)

www.msu.edu

Purpose: store genetic information that dictates everything about each living organism

Examples: DNA (top) and RNA(bottom)

www.scumdoctor.com


That's all for now!!   Tomorrow we test for these molecules in foods that we consume on a daily basis....look for my post tomorrow that will review the results of each particular test.

Bode

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