Below is a summary of each group of organic molecules.
Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Purpose: energy -- mainly short-term
Examples: glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycogen, cellulose, starches, lactose
-- aka sugars
-- most have the suffix (ending) -ose
-- if they aren't used, then they combine to form more complex sugars and eventually lipids
Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, and a LITTLE bit of oxygen
Subunits: fatty acids
Purpose: energy -- mainly long term, insulation, protection
Examples: fats, oils, waxes
-- hydrophobic - no they don't run in terror!! It means they don't mix with water.
-- compose cell membranes as a phospholipid bilayer
Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and sometimes Sulfur
Subunits: amino acids held together by peptide bonds
Purpose: structure and support, messengers and other mobile functions
Examples: muscle tissue, insulin, hemoglobin, enzymes
THEY RUN THE SHOW!!
--Enzymes -- special group of proteins that help speed up chemical reactions. They act like a key in that they are specific to the substrate that they work to break down or to combine. Example: lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose. It doesn't fit any other chemical structure except that of lactose. Most enzymes end in -ase.
Composed of: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
Subunits: nucleotides (phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base)
Purpose: store genetic information that dictates everything about each living organism
Examples: DNA (top) and RNA(bottom)
That's all for now!! Tomorrow we test for these molecules in foods that we consume on a daily basis....look for my post tomorrow that will review the results of each particular test.